Toxoplasmosis disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii
The infection is often higher in areas of the world with the climate is warm and humid.
The disease has a prevalence in Spain in the reproductive age population of 19 to 29%, in the UK 10-18% of pregnant women test positive for toxoplasmosis, 40% in Italy, France and Greece 55% and U.S. 15%.
Cats are the main causes of the spread of toxoplasmosis. Man may become infected by ingestion of oocysts, which are released in the feces of animals (cats), by eating unwashed vegetables properly or by tissue cysts by eating raw or improperly cooked.
Even pigs may be responsible for the spread although cats, small mammals and birds are the most important natural reservoirs, but do not underestimate the role of livestock: up to 25% of lamb and pork containing cysts potentially infectious. Only baking temperature greater than 60 °, or rapid freezing below -12.5 ° C, are capable of neutralizing the infectivity.
Flies and cockroaches can also transmit the disease, but no human to human transmission, except among the pregnant mother and fetus.
The effects on the fetus of toxoplasma infection in pregnant women vary depending on what trimester of pregnancy in which the parasite is acquired:
Q1: most likely intrauterine fetal death.
Q2: the baby born with malformations.
Q3: aftermath, severe conditions of the central nervous system, hydrocephalus, is reproduced on the walls of the ventricles, there is danger that the necrotic tissue obstructing the aqueduct, cerebral calcifications, premature Boyish, hepatosplenomegaly, jaundice, pneumonitis, myocarditis.
In healthy adults and children primary infection goes unnoticed in 80-90% of cases.
Latent infection that lasts throughout the course of life, has no effect unless ruptured cysts in the retina or we suffer immunosuppression.