An example is Barcelona, ​​where he reported 15 cases of tuberculosis in children under 15 years, with 10 of them are children from 0 to 4 years with a high incidence rate in both boys and girls (10.4 per 100,000 and 18.2 per 100,000 respectively), according to figures from the Public Health Agency of town.

According to Dr. Neus Altet, specialist of the Spanish Society of Pediatric Pulmonology (SENP) "poverty, poor nutrition, poor hygiene or housing and the diseases that weaken the defenses are factors that increase the possibility of falling ill, factors that may be aggravated by economic, political and social suffering countries. Hence, almost half of cases diagnosed in Spain occur in people who come from other countries: in developing countries overall.

Experts say that much research still needs to improve diagnostic methods, finding efficient substances that shorten the duration of therapy, and create better vaccines to protect against most forms of tuberculosis.

Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that spreads through the air and affects mainly the lungs, although a third of cases can cause injury to any other organ or tissue. This disease is caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis or bacillus of Koch, and produce the largest preventable mortality in the world.

The main source of exposure for children are adults who live with them and suffer from contagious tuberculosis. Given this focus of risk and, according to experts, the key to eradication is based on: early diagnosis, the patient's control environment and compliance with treatment. A child is diagnosed the infection or TB disease is like a "red lantern": near it is an adult who may not yet known to suffer from tuberculosis.

It is essential to note that being a carrier of infection with M. Tuberculosis is not necessarily sick. When a patient, affected the lungs that is contagious, sneezes, coughs, talks or spits, germs are seen free in the air can be inhaled by others. The immune system makes protective barrier keeping the infection dormant for years, but when he is weakened, the chances of disease dramatically.

Tuberculosis is a curable disease, but diagnosis and effective treatment is a challenge in all European countries. According to Dr. Altet, in the case of childhood tuberculosis, the treatment - with a duration of 6 months is uncomfortable but generally well tolerated, for the sick child should eat as variety of medications but can be minimized if the drawbacks integrated medication use.