Male fertility and semen quality
Factors that can impair the reproductive capacity and hinder the possibility of being a parent in a natural way, with the exception that age is not an influential factor for men when it comes to having children:
● Low blood counts. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), normal sperm count in the ejaculate of the male is 20 million per milliliter of semen. If the woman is particularly fertile, conception can be achieved with lower values, otherwise, higher values are needed for fertilization. If necessary, you can now use assisted reproductive techniques (IVF) or intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) to solve this problem. When there is no sperm in the ejaculate are used other techniques.
● Lack of mobility. There are men whose sperm have very low levels of mobility. It then turns to IVF or ICSI, as appropriate. The causes of such little or no mobility can be occasional (infections) or permanent (linked to a genetic condition).
● genetic abnormalities. They can be divided into two parts: genetic abnormalities in the chromosomes or genes and abnormalities that affect only the male germ line, ie, their sperm. Depending on the type of alteration can produce different events: the impossibility of pregnancy, abortion, stillbirth, premature induction of genetic problems in children ... This issue is now controlled by karyotype (set of chromosomes) in males The FISH technique in sperm (fluorescent in situ hybridization) and other evidence for common genetic diseases passed on from father to son. PGD (Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis) is a key technique to eliminate such anomalies in the offspring, as distinguished from healthy embryos that are not before being transferred to the womb.
● unknown factors. Since July 1978 in London came the first test tube baby, there is still much to do, but always going forward. The IVI in Spain just applied a new technique known as sperm sorting MACS (magnetic activated cell sorting or immunomagnetic cell selection). This technique, and to assess the morphology and sperm motility, including other molecular factors involved in infertility in need of new methods for sperm selection. This new technique improves the ability to fertilize an egg by 10 percent and, therefore, increases the chances of pregnancy.
● Poor eating habits. Obesity, overweight and poor eating habits are associated with decreased sperm production. A diet low in antioxidants (vitamins E, A, C, B-12, carnitine, arginine, selenium, etc.) Acts negatively on sperm DNA. Another important micronutrient is folate, essential in the development of germ cells.
● Alcohol consumption. Testosterone levels are affected by excessive alcohol consumption, and the quality and quantity of sperm.
● Snuff. The snuff, coupled with excessive consumption of alcohol, does not add up, but multiplies the negative effects on the male reproductive system. Affects, such as alcohol, quality and quantity of sperm.
● Drug. Several studies have shown that high doses of marijuana (8-20 cigarettes / day) was associated with a significant decrease in the concentration, motility and alterations in sperm morphology. Other drugs have similar actions.
● Stress. In men undergoing traumatic situations and stressful point of the sperm quality is seriously impaired. In couples undergoing assisted reproduction techniques, which may be under a great burden of anxiety and stress, can also be given this and it is very important psychological support.
Men also happens, but apparently only affects a minority and without experiencing many hot flashes. Doctors call hypogonadism. For most this condition is known as "male menopause", which is a hormonal decline associated with aging similar to that suffered by women.
A study by the University of Manchester (UK) conducted with 3,400 men aged 40 to 79 years in eight countries, concludes that menopause is actually a rare problem in men, and indeed only affect 2 percent of males, compared to one hundred percent of women. In any case, the study also provides the keys to identifying the warning signs that may lead to the restricted club of hormonal decline. The researchers identified nine symptoms, both physical and emotional, but stressed, above all, three:
● Reduction of morning erections.
● Reduction of libidinous thoughts or sexual fantasies.
● Erectile Dysfunction.
The study concludes that the presence of these three signals together with a reduction in levels of testosterone, the male hormone par excellence, may be the warning that "menopause" has been present and may need a hormonal drug support.